Why do I have to complete a CAPTCHA? Completing the CAPTCHA proves you are a human and gives you temporary access to the web property. What can I do to prevent this in the future? If you are on a personal connection, like at home, how Do Vice Make Money can run an anti-virus scan on your device to make sure it is not infected with malware. If you are at an office or shared network, you can ask the network administrator to run a scan across the network looking for misconfigured or infected devices.
Another way to prevent getting this page in the future is to use Privacy Pass. Check out the browser extension in the Firefox Add-ons Store. Enter the characters you see below Sorry, we just need to make sure you’re not a robot. Enter the characters you see below Sorry, we just need to make sure you’re not a robot. Please forward this error screen to host2. M9 1a8 8 0 1 0 0 16A8 8 0 0 0 9 1zm. M9 1a8 8 0 1 0 0 16A8 8 0 0 0 9 1zM8 15. How do you convert a byte array to a hexadecimal string, and vice versa? How can you convert a byte array to a hexadecimal string, and vice versa?
The accepted answer below appear to allocate a horrible amount of strings in the string to bytes conversion. 1586797 should be enough for performance. There are even more variants of doing it, for example here. Using Substring is the best option in combination with Convert. See this answer for more information. Doesn’t this loop allocate a horrible amount of string objects? Honestly – until it tears down performance dramatically, I would tend to ignore this and trust the Runtime and the GC to take care of it. Because a byte is two nibbles, any hex string that validly represents a byte array must have an even character count.
A 0 should not be added anywhere – to add one would be making an assumption about invalid data that is potentially dangerous. Either it is the same as 0F, or the input was clipped and F is actually the start of something you have not received. It is up to your context to make those assumptions, but I believe a general purpose function should reject odd characters as invalid instead of making that assumption for the calling code. Now go read that string back into bytes, oops you broke it. Performance Analysis Note: new leader as of 2015-08-20. Here are the results, roughly from fastest to slowest. If you really need top-notch performance, please test these methods in an environment representative of your production needs with data representative of what you will use. Lookup tables have taken the lead over byte manipulation. Basically, there is some form of precomputing what any given nibble or byte will be in hex.
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Then, as you rip through the data, you simply look up the next portion to see what hex string it would be. That value is then added to the resulting string output in some fashion. For a long time byte manipulation, potentially harder to read by some developers, was the top-performing approach. Your best bet is still going to be finding some representative data and trying it out in a production-like environment. If you have different memory constraints, you may prefer a method with fewer allocations to one that would be faster but consume more memory. Testing Code Feel free to play with the testing code I used. A version is included here but feel free to clone the repo and add your own methods.
Please submit a pull request if you find anything interesting or want to help improve the testing framework it uses. Added Nathan Moinvaziri’s lookup answer and the variant from Brian Lambert’s blog. It appears to have taken the lead on both the sentence tests and the full-text tests. Added airbreather’s optimizations and unsafe variant to this answer’s repo. If you want to play in the unsafe game, you can get some huge performance gains over any of the prior top winners on both short strings and large texts.
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Would you care to test the code from Waleed’s answer? It seems to be very fast. Despite making the code available for you to do the very thing you requested on your own, I updated the testing code to include Waleed answer. All grumpiness aside, it is much faster. And it won in my tests by quite a bit as well. I don’t pretend to fully understand either of the top methods yet, but they are easily hidden from direct interaction.
This answer has no intention of answering the question of what is “natural” or commonplace. The goal is to give people some basic performance benchmarks since, when you need to do these conversion, you tend to do them a lot. If someone needs raw speed, they just run the benchmarks with some appropriate test data in their desired computing environment. Just produced a high performance lookup table based implementation. The unsafe variants are even faster.
Despite it’s funny namespace, it does exactly what the question asked. Have you seen the implementation thought? The accepted answer has a better one IMHO. If so what does it do that makes it worse than the implementation in the accepted answer? Interesting to see the Mono implementation here: github. When writing crypto code it’s common to avoid data dependent branches and table lookups to ensure the runtime doesn’t depend on the data, since data dependent timing can lead to side-channel attacks. 10, which will become a letter from A to F.
31 on a signed 32 bit integer extracts the sign, thanks to sign extension. 31 will be 0 for letters and -1 for digits. Looking at the case for letters, the last summand becomes 0, and b is in the range 10 to 15. Now we could just multiply with 7. I didn’t use a second loop variable to index into c, since measurement shows that calculating it from i is cheaper. Making b an int allows unnecessary conversions from and to byte.
And hex string to byte array? 1 for properly citing your source after invoking that bit of black magic. AaA You said “byte array”, which literally means an array of byte arrays, or byte. The latter from a comment on the original post.
Just a note that maxc’s nice technique does need . 90’s style” loops are generally faster, but by a negligible enough amount that it wont matter in most contexts. Where is the second part of the answer? This one uses only one lookup table for each byte, instead of a lookup table per nibble. Why does creating the lookup table in the unsafe version swap the nibbles of the precomputed byte ? I thought endianness only changed ordering of entities that were formed of multiple bytes. But the order of 16 bit words in a 32 bit integer.
But I’m considering rewriting it so the same code can run regardless of endianness. All right, I’ll bite — what advantage is there to pinning _lookup32Unsafe indefinitely instead of just doing a third fixed statement and letting the GC relocate the array to its heart’s content whenever this method isn’t running? This just answer half of the question How about from hex string to bytes? This is great because it works on basically any version of NET, including NETMF.
Waleed’s solution answers the running question of how to do this without creating a huge number of strings in the process. This problem could also be solved using a look-up table. This would require a small amount of static memory for both the encoder and decoder. My solution uses 1024 bytes for the encoding table, and 256 bytes for decoding. Memory usage of 256 bytes is negligible when you run code on the CLR.
I’ll make the case that this edit is wrong, and explain why it could be reverted. Along the way, you might learn a thing or two about some internals, and see yet another example of what premature optimization really is and how it can bite you. Do not use anything else other than String. This answer may become obsolete if a Convert. This is unlikely to happen soon. As a general rule, I don’t much like to say “don’t optimize prematurely”, because nobody knows when “premature” is. The only thing you must consider when deciding whether to optimize or not is: “Do I have the time and resources to investigate optimization approaches properly?
Well, looking at the reference code for String. It operates at byte-level, not on surrogate pairs. It does allocate a new string however, but then you need to allocate one to pass to Convert. If you wonder how Read “reads”, just look at the code, all it does is call String. The rest is just book-keeping overhead to maintain values we don’t need. Do you really need a j index that increments in steps of two parallel to i? What does the solution look like now?
Exactly like it was at the beginning, only instead of using String. In fact, if you look at String. Worst-case: One fast allocation, one fast copy. Worst-case: Two normal allocations, one normal copy, one fast copy. Best-case: One normal allocation, one normal copy.